Spices are widely used in cooking because of their unique effect of seasoning and aroma. When used properly, spices can improve or add a special flavor to a dish.
1 Essence and Classification of Spices
Flavor is a substance that can be smelled by the sense of smell or tasted by the sense of taste, and is the raw material for the preparation of flavors.
According to the source of the fragrance, it is divided into three kinds: natural fragrance, natural equivalent fragrance and synthetic fragrance. Natural flavors are substances with certain aroma extracted from plants and animals by physical methods such as distillation, extraction and pressing. Natural flavors can be divided into two categories: plant-based natural flavors and animal-based natural flavors. The main varieties of animal natural flavors are musk, civet, castoreum, ambergris and muskrat; plant natural flavors are flowers, branches, leaves, grass, roots, barks, stems, seeds or Fruits and the like are the spice extract products obtained as raw materials. Natural equivalent fragrances are obtained by synthetic methods and exist in nature, such as vanillin, ethyl butyrate, etc. Synthetic fragrances are fragrances that have not been found in nature, which are obtained by artificial synthesis.
According to the composition of fragrances, it can be divided into two categories: monomeric fragrances and blended fragrances. Monomer fragrances are monomeric fragrance compounds separated from natural fragrances by physical or chemical methods, which have a single component and a definite molecular structure. Monomer fragrances are only used directly as fragrances in some special cases, usually mainly as raw materials for blending fragrances. Blending spices refers to the ingenious combination of various raw materials to configure spices that meet certain requirements.
2 The function of spice
1.To season, add color, add fragrance
In the process of cooking and preparing food, people usually add different spices according to the ingredients of the dishes to adjust their favorite flavors. Coloring with spices, such as pepper, turmeric, etc., can give dishes a certain color; using spices to flavor, such as star anise, cinnamon, etc., will improve/increase the aroma of dishes; use spices to suppress odor, such as pepper, cumin, etc. , it can correct/mask the fishy smell in the raw materials.
2. Antiseptic, antibacterial, antioxidant
For garlic, ginger, prickly ash and other spices, because it has a strong antioxidant effect, and can prevent the auto-oxidation of fat, it can play a role in preservation and preservation of livestock and poultry meat and fatty foods of aquatic products. Antibacterial compounds contained in spices, such as acids, aldehydes, alcohols, propyl esters, ketones, ethers and other ingredients, can prevent food spoilage or mucus discoloration and fermentation.
3. Has a special pharmacological effect
Spices are also a class of medicinal materials widely used in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, because most of them have certain medicinal effects. For example, garlic has the effects of warming the stomach, digesting food and regulating qi; ginger is effective in lowering blood lipids, lowering blood pressure, and preventing myocardial infarction. Good effect; cinnamon can be used to inhibit inflammation of wounds, stomach or intestines, diuretic or diaphoresis, sedatives and blood pressure lowering agents.
In addition, the essential oils of many spices can also volatilize a special aroma, which makes people smell fresh and pleasant, such as orange peel, mint, cinnamon and so on.
3 5 Principles for Using Spices in Meat Products
1. No abuses
According to the characteristics of the raw materials and the purpose of use, appropriate spices should be selected to obtain the best effect. For example, to deodorize and correct the taste, you must use garlic, onions, ginger, etc. Among them, garlic and onions have the best effect, and the onion flavor should slightly cover the garlic flavor. Pay attention to the unique aroma of garlic, and whether to add it and the amount should be determined according to the habits of consumers.
2. No tomes una sobredosis
Such as nutmeg and licorice, excessive use will produce astringent and bitter taste; excessive use of bay leaves and cinnamon will produce bitter taste; too much clove will produce a pungent taste and inhibit the fragrance of other spices; excessive use of thyme and perilla leaves will produce medicinal taste Wait.
Three, different flavors
When designing compound spices, the flavor of each spice should be carefully distinguished. For example, spicy spices include ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, pepper, etc., each of which has different flavors, such as dry, green, red, and sour. Spicy, spicy, garlicky, the difference is huge. Using the most common onion, ginger and garlic, plus pepper, pepper, pepper, different proportions, different origins, different people can make countless flavors. Even if you only taste chili, different varieties have different spiciness and flavor. Chengdu Chaotian pepper has high spiciness, strong flavor and mellow seeds. Guests who like spicy food like it, but foreign guests cannot accept it; Yidu red pepper has low spiciness. Yes, it is fragrant and has a good color. Most people can accept it, but those who love spicy food will feel dissatisfied.
4. Similar exchange
As long as the spices are similar in composition, they can be interchanged when used. If you want to add flavor, you can choose anise, cinnamon, nutmeg, perilla leaves, etc. Among them, anise and cumin, cardamom and cinnamon and other similar spices have similar functions and can be substituted for each other; but some spices have distinct characteristics and cannot be exchanged with other varieties, such as perilla leaves, thyme, mustard seeds, celery, etc.
5. Usar con
According to the different flavoring functions and functions of spices, various spice seasonings can be formulated and combined. The mixed use of two or more spices can play a better synergistic effect and produce a more ideal and softer comprehensive effect. Some spices are mainly based on taste, some have both fragrance and taste, and some are mainly based on aroma. Usually, these three types of spices are mixed and used in a ratio of 6:3:1 to help the dishes to enhance the aroma and color. , the role of taste.
Flavor is the basis for aroma to play its role, and aroma is the synergist and effector of flavor. Fragrance and taste should be coordinated, but not too much emphasis on a certain taste. When some spices are used in combination, they will offset their respective aromas and will not have the effect of enhancing the flavor. For example, perilla leaves are more effective in disinfecting, so special attention should be paid when mixing with other spices.
Pay attention to the coordination between spices and raw materials, so as not to adversely affect the flavor of dishes. When processing beef, sheep, and dog meat, use deodorizing and deodorizing spices, such as perilla leaves, grass fruit, pepper, etc.; when processing chicken, use deodorizing and deodorizing spices, such as laurel, nutmeg, pepper and so on; when processing fish, use spices that have an inhibitory effect on the fishy smell, such as onion ginger, coriander, thyme, etc.; when processing soy products, use spices that can remove the fishy smell, such as bay laurel, coriander, cloves, etc.; The aroma of vegetables is relatively light, and the use of spices should be cautious, and the appropriate amount of aromatic spices is appropriate.
4 Spices commonly used in meat products
|Cebolla||eliminar el olor a pescado||Sauce, braised and other meat products|
|jengibre||remove fishy smellReconcile the tasteSterilization and antiseptic||productos de carne|
|Ajo||Fragrance and freshnessremove fishy smellDegreasing and sterilizing||productos de carne|
|chile||Refreshing and warding off coldstimulate appetite||productos de carne|
|hinojo||Promote digestionWarm the stomach and relieve painFragrance and antiseptic||Braised Meat Products|
|Canela||Flavor and flavorremove fishy smell||dried meat productsBraised Meat Products|
|Pimienta de Sichuan||hemp and aromaEliminate smell and reduce mutton||Whole grains are mostly used for pickled productsPowder is mostly used for sausages and minced meat products|
|pimienta negra||Improve freshness and flavor||Pickled productsWestern-style enema products|
|nuez moscada en polvo||Fragrance and deodorization||Sauce Braised ProductsHigh-end enema products|
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